Power assist hybrid & Stage V emission standards

In 2016 European parliament adopted the new Stage V emission standards for combustion engines used in non-road mobile machinery (NRMM), it was published in the Official journal in September as Regulation (EU) 2016/1628. The new regulations have been phased in from 2018 and tighten the emission limits of Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), Particle mass (PM) and particle number (PN).

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What is NRMM?

NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery) is a diverse group defined as any mobile machinery used for other purposes than transportation of passengers or goods. This covers larger machinery such as mobile cranes, dumpers, construction machinery, water vessels as well as smaller machinery such as compressors, lawnmowers, chainsaws etc.
Agricultural and forestry vehicles are not directly classified as NRMM according to (EU) 2016/1628 and therefore not directly subject to Stage V standards. But the same rules apply indirectly as Regulation 167/2013 on the approval of agricultural and forestry vehicles stipulates that emission standards apply for agricultural and forestry vehicles as well.

Impact on NRMM

Tighter limits on PM and the new PN limit for engines between 19 kW and 560 kW expects to require common rail fuel systems and exhaust aftertreatment devices such as diesel particulate filters (DPF) on all diesel combustion engines above 19 kW. Depending on the engine power, exhaust aftertreatment such as DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst), SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and ASC (Ammonia Slip Catalyst) is also likely necessary to be Stage V compliant.

The new regulations have a big impact on engines in 19 kW – 37 kW range that prior to Stage V remained at Stage IIIA levels and could be compliant without common rail fuel systems and exhaust aftertreatment. Engines between 37 and 56 kW previously under Stage IIIB/IV standards is also highly affected as prior to Stage V they could also be compliant without advanced aftertreatment.

Electric power assist hybrid

An alternative solution to advanced exhaust aftertreatment in the 19-56 kW power range is to use a smaller < 19 kW combustion engine with electric power assist hybrid also called mild hybrid. The combination of electric and diesel power enhances the performance of the machine with more dynamic motor characteristics with higher power and torque at low engine speed. The absence of exhaust aftertreatment reduces the need for maintenance and service of the machine and makes it more user-friendly.

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Electric power assist consists of an electrical motor designed to be integrated with the combustion engine, this enables the power of a larger engine when needed while using a smaller combustion engine compliant with Stage V. The Power assist system analyses several parameters and seamlessly adapt different levels of electric and combustion drive, with the option to go full electric when needed, example for indoor operation.

The electric motor acts as a generator between power peaks and recharges the battery. Battery capacity is customized to the application specific duty cycles and operation time.

Regamotion electric power assist hybrid uses a GSM electrical motor that is designed with a standardized interface to the combustion motor according to SAE 5 (other on request). In hydraulic operation any pump with SAE-B interface can be used. Standardized interfaces keep the changes to the machine design to a minimum, as well as opens up for hybrid drive train parallel to the traditional drive train.

For more information visit the GSM product page or contact us.